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Welfare schemes or social empowerment programs are not the invention of modern age; they were also part of the ancient Mauryan kingdom. Such schemes were continued throughout the ancient, medieval and the pre-modern age. This reveals the fact that empowerment of the poor, marginalized is ingrained in our culture, which has been inherited by the modern age to ensure that rule of low, equality and harmony prevails in the society. Social empowerment schemes though few in numbers and different in character, were also continued by the Britishers.
After independence, the nature of Indian economy, society completely changed due to the exploitative nature of British rule. Rural India, after becoming self-reliant, became financially poverty and sick. Informality, famine, prevailing inequality, social culture, traditions are some other reasons which fall on the margins of rural India, women, children and unemployed youth.
India adopted a mixed economy, where the state started the development of the public, this initiative included the establishment of the Planning Commission, which was the nodal agency for major programming. To review the performance of key programs, its impact on the Indian economy, marginalized in four reactions, strengthen the main program, i.e. Rural Development Plans (ii) Child Welfare Schemes (iii) Women Empowerment Schemes (iii) iv) Employment Plans
Rural development schemes
Development of rural India is a mandatory one for inclusive and equitable development and it is unlocking big potential for the current population, which is presently in poverty with related disadvantaged people. Rural planning is mostly linked to the provision of social infrastructure and profits and productive employment. The origins of rural development program began with the development of the Community Development Program (CDP) in 1952 and played an important role in the level of rural India and the reconstruction of rural India.
But due to the lack of clearly defined priorities, the benefits of rich and big farmers, lack of coordination between different development departments, administrative inefficiency, etc., covering the physicalization of CDP on full scale.
After the CDP, the Integrated Rural Development Program, National Rural Employment Program, Travel, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Antyodaya Program, Drought Prone Area Program, Other Rural Development Program, Desert Development Program Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana etc. started.
These programs have mixed results and the fact is that rural India is still facing many kinds of crisis, their inefficiency proves that in order to analyze the causes of such crisis, to review some key plans, this advice Is given.
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) is a right-based wage employment program, which aims to increase livelihood security. For the successful implementation of MNREGA, a web enabled management information system has also been developed to ensure transparency and accountability.
Apart from this, it has been successful in providing employment in the lean months, increase in rural consumption helps in making sustainable assets for agriculture.
The National Rural Livelihood Mission attempts to reach out to all the rural poor families of the country and organize themselves into self-help groups (SHGs).
The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana in a bid to give better rural connectivity, has also included sustainable measures like use of locally available construction material such as waste plastic, fly ash, cold, mix technology. A good road should lead to a good house, hence government aimed at ‘shelter for all’ through Indira Awas Yojana.
Further National Social Program (Social Security) Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (Skill Development), Deen Dayal Upadhay Gram Jyoti Yojana (Rural Electrification) were initiated.
Women Empowerment Schemes
Chiristanc e Lagarde, Chief, IMF said that, “India’s GDP can expand by 27% of the number of female workers would increase to the same level as that of men.” Women enjoyed equal powers during the early Vedic period. But since later Vedic they have been subjugated, denied their rights, harassed etc. in this regard, Ministry of Child and Women Development took the leadership for promoting empowered women living with dignity and contributing as equal partners in development in an environment free from violence and discrimination.
Discrimination against women starts even before her birth (infanticide) that continues with discrimination in health care, education etc. to their rescue came to Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Scheme, with a twin aim of not only improving the adverse sex ratio, but also to ensure that girls are educated.
Nutritional deficiency, iron deficiency amongst adolescent girls is a common phenomenon in India. Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls aims all round development of adolescent girls. To safeguard the future of girl child Sukanya Samridhi Account Saving Scheme was launched which targated parents of girl child, is a part of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Campaign.
One Stop Centre, a sub-scheme of the National Mission for Empowerment of women is intended to support women affected by violence is private and public spaces, within the family, community and at work place. In India, due to socio-cultural, economic environment many women face difficulty like destitute women, or women released from jail, survivors of natural disasters. Moreover, any women fall prey to trafficking. So, Swadhan Scheme comes to rescue of destitute women and Ujjawala for the prevention of trafficking in women.
Child Welfare Schemes
Children of the age group 0-6 years constitute the future human resource of the country. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme is one of the world’s largest and unique programmes ofr early child care and development. It is the foremost symbol of country’s commitment ot its children and nursing mothers, as a response to the challenge of providing pre-school non-formal education on one hand and breaking the vicious cycle of malnutrition, mobility, reduced learning capacity and mortality on other.
With a view of enhancing enrollment, retention and attendance and simultaneously imporoving nutritional levels among children. Mid-Day Meal scheme was launched, where all children are served hot cooked meal irrespective of their caste, creed, sex etc. Nelson Mandela said that, “Educaiton is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” This aim is realized through the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) a Universal Elementary Education Program with opportunity ofr improving human capabilities to all children. National child labor project aims at eliminating child labor from hazardous condition and certain occupations and processes.
India is considered a post of stability and opportunity. Demographic dividend is a boon in the way of India for growth. But all this will be achieved only when youth are provided employment and it is also productive and profitable. Changes by the growing economy of agricultural economy and education has increased the demand for employment. Employment program in India is directed to prove basic employment during lean season and also fulfills the growing aspirations of the youth.
Prime Minister's Employment Generation Program is a credit linked subsidy program introduced by the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) for the creation of employment in both rural and urban areas of the country.
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, National Rural Livelihood Mission, National Urban Livelihood Mission and Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana aims at skilling, building a better India. Similarly, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana is a project to engage rural youth specially BPL and SC/ST segment of population in gainful employment through skill training program.
India is a nation of diversity, apartheid. Although this diversity, contradictory party is the most rich, common facility or resurgence of rich and poor, most skilled research oriented scientists for unskilled agriculture / bonded labor, obesity and malnutrition, India. Therefore, welfare schemes are directed towards reducing these inequalities, besides, to be effective and impartial oriented, for the purpose of implementation, welfare schemes should be decentralized.
To ensure accountability and transparency, through the use of information technology through e-Governance program, there will be tremendous help in improving service delivery. And the last but not the least, the citizens should be included in all welfare schemes, by implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the right plan.