We are providing many paragraphs, long essay in very simple language with the boundaries of different words here. Here you can find Essay on Tuberculosis – A curse in India in English language for students in 1000 words. In this article cover Topic : India is the global capital of tuberculosis, Causes of the disease, Different symptoms of TB, Several TB tests of diagnose the disease, Treatment and prevention of TB and Government's different initiative to cure and prevent TB.
Tuberculosis is one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans and it is a major cause of deaths worldwide. This disease usually affects the lungs although other organs are involved in up to one-third of cases.
India is the undisputed global capital of TB with an estimated 2.2 million cases of active TB out of an annual incidence of 9 million cases globally and 40% of its population harbouring latent TB infection, including an estimated 2.5 million HIV cases which can develop the most dreaded drug resistant disseminated TB at any time and succumb to it in no time. India accounts for nearly one-fifth of the global burden of tuberculosis and the disease is one of India's most important prublic health problems. Each year, 12 lakh Indians are notified as having been newly diagnosed with TB. In addition, at least 2.7 lakh Indian die annually.
Causes of Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is a common infectious disease caused by bacteria 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis' which affects the lungs. It mostly affects a person whose immunity is compromised e.g. infants or old people, cancer patients, HIV positive people, alcoholic, drug takers and narcotics are also likely to suffer from TB. If one is in dose contact (living or working together) with people suffering from TB, one has more risk of developing TB.
Symptoms of Tuberculosis
TB patient may experience some of these top symptoms
- Chest pain
- Recurrent and constant cough
- Pain in coughing
- Coughing blood
- Night sweats
- Loss of appetite
- Fatigue and weakness
- Enlargement of Lymph nodes (near the heart and lungs)
TB of skin may show symptom of a non-healing ulcer or boil. The symptom of spine may show in the form of backache or stiffness, the TB of intestine has symptoms, abdominal enlargement and absolute constipation. Even non-healing and fistula could be seen.
Tests and Diagnosis
The development of TB disease is a two stage process. In the first stage, known as latent TB, a person is infected with TB bacteria. In the second stage, known as active TB or TB disease, the bacteria have reproduced sufficiently to usually cause the person to have become sick There are several TB tests available to diagnosis TB. There are also drug susceptibility TB tests to find out whether someone has TB bacteria that are susceptible to TB drug treatment or are drug resistant tests.
There are TB tests which can be used to determine, if someone has latent TB, which means that they are infected with TB bacteria. Even if a person has symptoms, TB is often difficult to diagnose and is particularly difficult to diagnose rapidly. Rapid diagnosis is what is needed to provide effective TB treatment.
A diagnosis of active TB can only be confirmed when there is definite evidence of TB bacteria in the person's body. Some of the diagnostic TB tests look directly for TB bacteria. Others, such as the chest X-ray look for the effect of the bacteria on the person suspected of having TB. The TB skin test is widely used for diagnosing TB. But TB skin test cannot diagnose, if the person has latent TB or active TB disease. Primary, TB is usually diagnosed with a sputum test. A small sample of the patient's spit is collected and examined under the microscope for the presence of the bacteria. Chest X-ray is also used to diagnose TB. Blood tests looking for abnormalities in blood counts could reinforce the diagnosis.
The Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs), are a new type of more accurate TB test. IGRAs are blood tests that measure a person's immune response to the bacteria that cause TB. The immune system produces some special molecules called cytokines. These TB tests work by detecting a cytokine called the interferon gai:nma cytokine.
Treatment and Prevention
Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) is an internationally recognised strategy for delivering the basics of TB case-finding and cure. It is not simply a clinical approach to patients, but rather a management strategy for public health systems, including political commitment, case-detection through quality-assured bacteriology, short-course chemotherapy, ensuring patient adherence to treatment, adequate drug supply and sound reporting and recording systems. Worldwide, between 1995 and 2008, a cumulative total of 36 million TB patients were successfully treated in DOTS programmes and up to 6 million deaths were averted. The antibiotics most commonly used include isoriazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. But India's TB control programme needs to update itself with the international TB guidelines as well.
Government Initiatives to Cure and Prevent Tuberculosis
TB treatment and care in India is provided by the government's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) as well as through private sector 3ealth providers. The India Government's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) started in India during 1997 uses the WHO recommended Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) strategy to develop ideas and data on TB treatment.
The aim of RNTCP was to achieve the following targets by the end of 2015
- Early detection and treatment of at least 90% estimated TB cases in the community, including HIV associated TB.
- Initial screening of all previously treated (re-treatment) smear-positive TB patients for drug resistant TB and the provision of treatment services for multi-drug resistant TB.
- The offer of HIV counselling and testing for all TB patients and linking HIV infected TB patients to HIV care and support.
- The extension of RNTCP services to patients diagnosed and treated in the private sec:tor.
On World TB Day' on 21st March, 2016, the Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare Mr JP Nadda launched a new anti-TB drug ‘Bedaquiline' for drug resistant TB as part of the RNTCP. He also introduced CBNAAT (Cartride Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test) machines in the programme. The CBNAAT is a revolutionary rapid molecular test which detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Rifampicin drug resistance, simultaneously.
In the end, Directly Observed Treatment Strategy (DOTS) and NTP National Tuberculosis Programme) have done reasonably effective job in controlling TB, but there are some factors which are yet to be addressed and considered to achieve the desired outcome in curbing TB. India is a signatory to the World Health Assembly which has endorsed the 'End TB Strategy' under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This strategy envisages reducing the incidence of TB cases by 50% and deaths related to TB by 75%, by 2025.