We are providing many paragraphs, long essay in very simple language with the boundaries of different words here. Here you can find Essay on Fundamental Rights : Bedrock of Indian Democracy in English language for students in 1000 words. In this article cover Topic : Define Fundamental Rights, Changes require constitutional amendments, Cassifications of Fundamental Rights, Violation of Fundamental Rights can be challenged through different writs, Some Fundamental Rights are only for citizen of India, Ensuring basic human freedom and Importance of Fundamental Rights.
The Part III of the Constitution of India gives a detailed description on a charter of rights called the 'Fundamental Rights'.
These Fundamental Rights guarantee civil freedom to all the citizens of India to allow them to live in peace and harmony. These are the basic rights that every Indian citizen has the right to enjoy, irrespective of their caste, creed and religion, place of birth, race, colour or gender. These Fundamental Rights include Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Education Rights, Right against Exploitation.
The Fundamental Rights were included in the Constitution because they were considered essential for the development of every individual and to preserve human dignity. They are justiciable i.e. any violation of these rights can be questioned in the court of law (Supreme Court and High Court) through writs.
Changes in Fundamental Rights require a constitutional amendment. The Constitution originally laid seven rights including the right to property, but the 44th Amendment of 1978 deleted the right to property, though it still is a constitutional right. Long after the deletion of the right to property. Right to Education was added to the list of Fundamental Rights under Section 21A on 2nd April, 2010.
Now, the Fundamental Rights are categorised under seven sections apart from the general segment from Articles 12 to 35. The Fundamental Rights have been classified under the following main heads
1. Right to Equality: It guarantees to all persons (citizens as well as other) equality before the law and equal protection of law. It prohibits discrimination between citizens on ground only or religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them. All citizens have equal access to shops, public entertainments and places of public resort, which are maintained wholly or partly by the State. However, special provisions may be made in respect of women, children, socially and educationally backward classes and scheduled castes and tribes. The Constitution guarantees equal opportunities relating to public employment to all citizens, but some posts may be reserved for backward classes. It abolishes untouchability and also abolishes the system of conferring titles by the State, except military and academic distinctions.
2. Right to Freedom: It includes a gamut of rights such as right to speech and expression, right to assemble peacefully or to forin association, right to move freely throughout the territory of India, right tc'> life and liberty, right to reside and settle in any part of India and so on.
3. Right to Freedom of Religion : All citizens have been guaranteed freedom to profess, practise and propagate any religion. Every religious group has been given the freedom to manage its religious affairs and to own, .acquire and administer property for religious or charitable purposes.
4. Right against Exploitation: The right seeks to ban traffic in human beings, begar or any other form of forced labour. Employment of children below 14 years of age in any factory or mine or other risky occupations is also prohibited by law.
5. Cultural and Educational Rights: This right guarantees to the minorities the right of conserving their language, script and culture, to receive education and administer educational institutions of their choice.
6. Right to Constitutional Remedies: It guarantees the right to move the Supreme Court for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. This right can, however, be suspended during the operation of a proclamation of emergency by the President.
Before moving further it is important to note that the Fundamental Rights given in Article 12-35 of the Indian Constitution cannot be violated. In case of its violation, it can be questioned in a court of law through certain writs under Article 32. The writs are as follows :
- Habeas Corpus : This writ is a command of the court to a person who is detaining another person, to. bring the body of the person in his custody at a stipulated time and place for a specified purpose.
- Mandamus: It is an order that commands a person or a body to do what constitutes his or its duty as legal performance.
- Prohibition: This writ is issued to prevent a junior court not to exceed its jurisdiction or act contrary to the norms of natural justice. Certiorari It is used to order the shifting of a suit from a lower court to higher court to prevent an excess or abuse of jurisdiction before the comnmencement of the trial.
- Quo Warianto: It restrains a person from acting in an office to which he is not entitled. The court may declare the office vacant.
There are certain Fundamental Rights which are granted only to citizens of India and not to foreigners. These includes protection from discrimination on grounds on religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth (Article 15), equality of opportunity in matters of public employment (Article 16), freedom of speech and expression (Article 19) and cultural and educational rights (Article 30).
Ever since its adoption, the chapter on Fundamental Rights in the Constitution has been under criticism, both in India and outside. The critics argued that some important rights such as right to work etc were not include.
It was also pointed out that the spirit of the whole chapter was spoiled by taking away much of the freedoms or rights provided through the insertion of many preventive provisions such as preventive detention, suspension of the right to constitutional remedies etc.
The concept of Fundamental Rights limits the power of government and prevents the executive artd the legislature from becoming authoritative or dictatorial and also it provides an opportunity for the individual for self development.
Constitutions that did not contain such provisions, have resulted into dictatorial rule. Hence, the philosophy and concept, underlying the Fundamental Rights is that constitutional limitation on the power of the government are the only way of ensuring and safe-guarding the basic human freedoms and so the dignity and self-respect for the individuals.
The success or failure of a democracy depends largely on the extent to which civil liberties and basic rights are enjoyed by the citizens. A democracy must aim at the highest development of the individual, which is certain to be achieved through the Fundamental Rights.
Only a free society wherein individuals feel dignified, enjoy basic rights can assure the all round and quick progress of its members and thus of the nation itself Herein lies the importance of Fundamental Rights in the success of democracy.