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Essay on Indian Civil Nuclear Strategy

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We are providing many paragraphs, long essay in very simple language with the boundaries of different words here.  Here you can find Essay on Indian Civil Nuclear Strategy in English language for students in 1000 words. In this article cover Topic : Introduction of nuclear energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and its objectives, Different programmes of DAE, The Atomic Energy Commission and its different roles, Bhabha Atomic Research Central (BARC) and its contribution in the field of nuclear energy, Three stages of India's nuclear power programme and The objectives of nuclear policy in India.

Albert Einstein said "I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stopes". The great scientist was preferably referring to growing nuclearisation of war. Nuclear technology can destroy the entire humanity in no time but in the same time it could be used for civilian purpose which can benefit humanity in many ways. India being a peace loving country promotes civilian use of nuclear technology.

Since our Independence our first Prime Minister Pt Nehru took a very vocal stand against nuclear weapons. But being aware of its utility, modernist Nehru asserted for its use in national development.

Nuclear energy is the energy which is derived from any radioactive material. It can be derived through two proceses i.e. nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.

Nuclear fission is a process where the nucleus of a radioactive element breaks down and energy is released and on the other hand nuclear fusion is the process where two elements combine to release energy. The former is a controllable process and is used in civil nuclear energy.

The latter is a process which is difficult to control but produces enormous energy. The nuclear fusion process takes place in the Sun and provides continuous energy to it. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), aims at producing electricity from fusion power stations. India being an official partner in ITER will surely benefit in terms of greater access and clean energy. In Department of

Atomic Energy (DAE) was established in 1954. DAE is involved in applications of nuclear technology in the field of agriculture, medicine, industry and basic research. Department of Atomic Energy is directly under the Prime Minister of India. It has the following objectives : to empower India through technology and make energy independent. Through deployment of nuclear technology it aims to place India on a higher trajectory where it can ciaim its place at the world fora. DAE has the following mandate : It aims to increase the share of nuclear power in our energy mix by indigenous or other associated imported technology. Designing research reactors for production of isotopes and carrying on its application in the field of medicine, agriculture and industry. It also aims to develop advance technology including laser devices, super computers, accelerators and encouraging technology transfer in the area. it also aims to support basic research in the field of nuclear technology and allied areas by its interaction with university. Through its endeavour in nuclear technology it aims to contribute to national security.

Department of Atomic Energy has programmes related to civilan use of nuclear technology in various areas. In the field of agriculture it is developing application to enhance production of oilseed and pulse also in a related field, through radiation process in food and agro products it aims to achieve food and nutrition security. DAE also has programmes in desalination technology in coastal areas where water scarcity is present. Finally, it also strives for energy security to ensure near and long term self reliance.

The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) is the governing body of DAE. AEC has the following role, organising research in atomic science and to brain scientists in this field; undertake extraction of nuclear minerals in India and its production at large scale. To achieve these objectives it has following five institution, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai; Indira Gandhi Atomic Research Centre, Kalpakkam; Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata; Atomic Mineral Directorate for Exploration and Research, Hyderabad.

 

Bhabha Atomic Research Central (BARC) among above all is the most advanced nuclear research facility in India. Or Homi J Bhabha, a visionary scientist pioneered work in this field. Or Bhabha's work was aimed at achieving self reliance in the field of nuclear science. DAE a consortium, of different fields of science is the final outcome of farsighted planning of Or Bhabha. He said "When nuclear energy is successfully applied for power production, in a couple of decades from now, India will not have to look abroad for its experts but will find them ready at hand".

In our energy mix nuclear technology contributes just over 3% of our total installed capacity at 5780 MW. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) a government owned corporation is responsible for generation of nuclear power for electricity. NPCIL is administered by Department of Atomic Energy.

The first nuclear power plant was installed in 1969 in Tarapur, Maharashtra with two units of 160 MW each. At present there are 21 nuclear power plants operational in India. By 2050 India aims to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear source.

India's nuclear power programme was conceived as a three stage cycle as envisaged by Dr Homi Bhabha. The first stage was the Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) utilising natural uranium to produce electricity. The spent fuel was Plutonium-239 as a by product. The second stage was

Fast breeder reactor which used mixed oxide made from by product of first stage i.e. Plutonium-239. Fast breeder reactors are the ones which produce more fuel than it consumers. The third stage as envisaged was Thorium based reactor which involved self sustaining fuel model comprising Thorium-232 and Uranium-233 as fuel. Large deposit of Thorium have been discovered in Malabar coast of India, making it the natural choice of fuel for the third stage.

As India is not a signatory to the discriminate Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, due to its weapons programme, it was excluded from trade in nuclear material and nuclear plant technology. This had hampered its civil nuclear strategy till 2009. Since 2009 our civil nuclear path changed as we signed the India-US Civil Nuclear Agreement also called as 123 Agreemenr_ Also with the support of USA NuClear Suppliers Group (NSG) granted waiver to India to access nuclear material and nuclear technology. In pursuance of the exemption granted to India, the Parliament passed Nuclear Liability Act, 2010.

The act was to facilitate transfer of nuclear technology and fix the liability for any accidental damage. The Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool, launched by State-Owned General Insurance Corporation and other insurance companies will after an insurance product .for NPCIL for covering the operator's liability under the provision of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (CLND) Act 2010.

Nuclear energy for sometime will be at the heart of power capacity of developing nations. The nuclear policy of India has been full of contrasting steps given its wide ranging applicability. It has been a mix of aspirational change to be brought about by nuclear technology and the policy of nuclear weapons free world The reconciliation between the two will be a hard bargain, unless world power takes adequate steps qy greater participation in Nuclear Security Summits (as it happened in 2016 in USA). However, because of our geopolitics, being surrounded by two nuclear armed states makes it an obvious choice to have nuclear weapons but rapid strides in civil nuclear technology would serve us well in our pursuit of growth and development.

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