Print Document or Download PDF

Essay on Exploring Mars: The Red Planet

Feed by sandy Cat- Essay

We are providing many paragraphs, long essay in very simple language with the boundaries of different words here.  Here you can find Essay on Exploring Mars: The Red Planet for students in 1000 words. In this article cover Topic : Description of Mars planet, First Soviet Union, then NASA launrhed missions to the Mars, Mariner 9 and its discovery about the Mars, NASA sent Viking 1and Viking 2 to the Mars, The failure of Mars observer, Mars Global Surveyor's successtul mission to the Mars. NASA launched Mars Phoenix, Curiosity, Maven. India's first interplanetary mission, Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) and its achievements . The present and future missions of Mars. and Development of a revolutionary new view of Mars.

Mars is the fourth planet and second smallest planet of the solar system. It is known as the Red Planet because of the presence of iron oxide in its soil. This iron oxide imparts a Red Colour to the planet. Mars has two moons namely Phobos and Deimos. The exploration of the Mars is the study of the Mars by spacecraft. Dozens of missions have been launched to Mars in order to understand its atmosphere. Some were flybys, gathering information only in brief bursts. Others were long-standing orbiters that lasted years at the Red Planet. And perhaps most challenging of all were the landers, some stationary, and some roving for miles across the surface.

The NASA, the Soviet Union, the European Space Agency and the Indian Space Research Organisation have sent their spacecrafts to Mars. [t was the Soviet Union which made the first attempt to launch missions to the Mars. Mrsnik 1 (Korab! 5), Marsnik 2 (Korabl 4), Sputnik 22 (Korab} 11) and Sputnik 24 (Korab} 13) were launched by Soviet Union and were declared failures due to different reasons. The Mariner 3, an intended Mars flyby was launched by the NASA. The shroud encasing the spacecraft at the top of the rocket failed to jettison.

This was followed by the launch of Marnier 4 by the NASA. Marnier 4 was the first spacecraft to flyby the Mars and obtain close pictures of the Red Planet. It had sent back twenty one pictures of the planet Mariner 4 imaged a large, ancient crater on Mars and confirmed the existence of a thin Martian atmosphere composed largely of carbon dioxide. However, scientists lost contact with it subsequently. Coincidentally, all of these spacecraft flew over areas of Mars that were cratered. This gave a false first impression that Mars looked like the moon.

 

The image of Mars changed with the arrival of Mariner 9 by NASA Mariner 9 was the first spacecraft to go into orbit around another planet. The spacecraft arrived when a huge Martian dust storm had engulfed the entire planet. Mariner 9 also discovered a huge rift across the surface of Mars that was later called Valles Marineris. It studied the atmospheric and surface composition of the planet, the density and pressure of its atmosphere as well as the planet's gravity and topography. The spacecraft also provided scientists with the first close-up views of Phobos and Deimos, the two moons of Mars.

It was clear that Mars was a very different planet than Earth, which sparked several more missions to the Red Planet. The Soviet Union continued its 'Mars' series of spacecraft, but only met with partial success.

NASA, meanwhile, sent two pairs of orbiters and landers, Viking 1 and Viking 2 towards Mars. Viking represented the first extended exploration of Mars, with each spacecraft lasting years and transmitting reams of information. When Viking 1 entered orbit at Mars, it began taking pictures of the surface in search of a safe landing site for the lander.

The lander took extensive weather readings and conducted experiments on soil samples collected with a scoop. It located landing site for lander and made the first successful landing on Mars. Viking 2 returned 16000 images and extensive atmospheric data and soil experiments. NASA's next attempt to reach the Red Planet came with the launch of Mars Observer. It was lost just before it was supposed to achieve orbit. While the loss of communication could never be fully explained, the most likely cause was identified as a fuel tank rupture that caused the spacecraft to spin and lose contact with the Earth The loss was especially painful because spacecraft had so much cost involved This sparked a new move within NASA to create "Faster, Better, Cheaper" (FBC) missions that would take advantage of advanced computer electronics and new team management techniques to reduce costs.      .

Mars Global Surveyor was the first completely successful Mars orbiter since Viking 1 shut down. The start of Mars Global Surveyor's science mission was delayed due to a problem with one of its solar panels that caused its aerobraking period (which reduced its initial orbit from an ellipse to a

low-altitude, near circular one) to last for a year and a half MGS mapped the planet from pole to pole, revealing many ancient signs of water, such as gullies and hematite (a mineral that forms in water). Its data helped NASA decide where to land rovers.

Japan entered the mission-to-Mars arena with Nozomi (Planet-B) which failed to enter the orbit The discovery of ancient water evidence on Mars sparked a renaissance in Mars exploration. Mars Odyssey sent the high resolution images of Mars. NASA launched a stationary lander called Mars Phoenix, which arrived at Mars. Phoenix landed near Mars' north pole to study the water ice found close to the surface there. The mission ended when winter temperatures and cloud cover led to depletion of solar power, which was expected The mission was declared concluded after engineers were unable to establish contact with the lancler.

A more powerful rover called Curiosity (Mars Science laboratory), launched by the NASA was the next generation of rover, building on the successes of two rovers Spirit and Opportunity. It arrived at Gale crater on Mars to search for signs of ancient habitable environments. Its major findings include finding previously water-soaked areas, detecting methane on the surface, and finding organic compounds (considered the building blocks of (life) Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN), launched by the NASA has provided first-of-its-kind measurements to address key questions about Mars climate and habitability and improve understanding of dynamic processes in the upper Martian atmosphere and ionosphere.

Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is India's first interplanetary mission to the planet Mars with an orbiter craft des1gned to orbit Mars in an elliptical orbit. It is also known as "Mangalyaan". The Mission is primarily a technological mission considering the critical mission operations and stringent requirements on propulsion and other bus systems of spacecraft. It has been configured to carry out observation of physical features of Mars and carry out limite'd study of Martian atmosphere with following five payloads which include Mars Colour Camera (MCC), Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIS), Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM), Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) and Lyman Alpha Phootometer (LAP).

The present active missions to Mars include 2001 Mars Odyssey, Spirit and Opportunity Rovers, Mass Express Rover, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MAVEN, MOM. The future missions include the NASA's InSight, NASA's Mars 2020 and European Space Agency's ExoMars program.

Mars has historically been unfriendly to Earth's attempts to visit it. More missions have been attempted to Mars than to any other place in the Solar system except the Moon, and about half of the attempts have failed. Some of these failures occurred because Mars was the first planet Earth attempted to explore, and the early exploration attempts taught us many lessons that have made subsequent missions more successful.

Read More.


Go Back