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Culture is one of the most important and basic concepts of sociology. There is a specific meaning in sociology culture. Anthropologists believe that behavior is called culture. In other words, the behavior that is sent to us by someone is called culture.
The way to live, eat, wear, sing, dance and talk are all parts of culture. In the general trend, the word culture, beautiful, refined or interesting means.
In sociology, we use word culture to show acquisition behavior, which is shared and circulated among members of society. In other words, culture is a system of learned behavior shared and transmitted among members of a group.
Culture has been defined in various ways by sociologists and anthropologists. Following are the important definitions of culture.
E.B. Tyler defines "culture is complex in which knowledge, faith, art, ethics, jaws, customs and any other abilities and habits derived by humans as a member of society are included."
Edward Sapper says that "culture is any social heritage element of human, physical and spiritual life".
Malinovski has defined "culture appears in art and artifact in human and traditional understanding, which he achieves its ends".
Redfield commented that "culture is an organized body of traditional understanding that appears in art and artifacts that reflects the human group".
Mac Ever believes that "culture is an expression of sexual intercourse in our way of life, and in our thinking, in our literature, in religion, in entertainment and happiness.
According to the ES, Bogders are "all the ways to think and think about the culture group".
Characteristics of culture
For a clear understanding of the concept of culture, it is important to know our main features. There are many features in culture. The main features of culture are the following.
1. Culture is learned
Culture has not been biologically inherited, but humanly learned socially. This is not an inborn trend. Such culture is not nature because such culture is often called the learned methods of behavior.
Unaware behavior, such as closing eyes during sleep, eyes blinking eyes are completely hands-on physical or culture sharing or greetings or thanksgiving and shaving and dressing culture on the other side.
Similarly, playing roles in dressing, wearing hair, wearing ornaments, cooking, drinking with a glass, eating with a plate or leaf, reading the newspaper, driving, play, singing, worshiping etc. is always the behavior of the cultural form Learned by humans
2. Cultural Social
Culture is not present in isolation. Neither is it a personal event. This is a product of society. It is produced and developed through social interaction. It is shared by members of the society. Any person can achieve culture without cooperating with other humans.
Man becomes human only among men. It is a culture that helps human beings to develop human qualities in the human environment. The deprived is deprived of nothing but human qualities.
3. Culture is shared
Culture in the social sense, something has been shared. It is not something that the person alone has. For example customs, traditions, beliefs, thoughts, values, ethics etc. are shared by groups or people of the society.
Artistic work of Arya Bhatta or Albert Einstein, Charaka or Charles Darwin invented, literary, Kalidas or Keats, work of Dandi or Dante, Confucius or Lao TS, Shankaracharya or Swami Vivekananda's philosophical work, poet Verma or Raphael etc. All large numbers are shared by people.
Culture is adopted, used, it is believed that it is practiced or passed by more than one person. It depends on the life of the group for its existence. (Robert Breasted)
4. The culture is transmissive
Culture is capable of spreading from one generation to the next generation. Parents pass their children on the qualities of culture and they in turn go for their children. Culture spreads not through genes but through language. Language is the main vehicle of culture.
In various forms like language, reading and speaking, the language makes it possible for the present generation to understand the achievements of previous generations.
But language is only part of the culture. Once language acquisition, it appears in front of the person in a wide area. Broadcast culture can be done with interaction as well as interaction.
5. Culture is constant and cumulative
Culture exists as a continuous process. In its historical development it becomes cumulative. Culture is growing completely, including the achievements of the present, present and present, and makes provisions for the achievements of the future of mankind.
Thus culture can be considered as a stream which flows from one generation to the next, for centuries. So some sociologists, like lotions, call culture as the social heritage of human beings.
Robert Biersted writes culture or human money. It is difficult for us to imagine what will be the society without this accumulation of society, without it what will be life.
6. The culture is coherent and embedded
Culture has exposed the tendency to be consistent in its development. As well as in different parts of the culture are connected to each other.
For example, the value system of society is closely related to other aspects such as society ethics, religion, customs, traditions, beliefs etc.
7. Culture is dynamic and adaptive
Although the culture is relatively stable, it is not completely stable. It is subject to slow but constant change. Changes and development are disorganized in culture.
When we compare it to the culture of Vedic times, we get amazing growth in the present Indian culture. Therefore culture is dynamic.
Culture is responsible for the changing conditions of the physical world. It's adaptive. It also interferes in the natural environment and helps humans in the process of adjustment.
As soon as our home gives shelter to us from the storm, our culture also helps us with natural hazards and helps us to survive. Some of us can actually survive without culture.
8. Culture is satisfied
Culture provides appropriate opportunities and determines our needs and desires for satisfaction. These needs may be biological or social in nature.
Our requirement of food, shelter and clothing, our desire for status, name, fame and wealth etc. is fulfilled for all the purposes, according to the cultural methods.
Culture prescribes and guides the various activities of human beings. In fact, culture is defined as the process through which humans fulfill their desires.
9. Culture differs from society to society
Every society has its own culture. It is different from society to society. Culture of every society in its own unique. Culture is not the same.
Cultural elements such as customs, traditions, ethics, ideals, values, ideologies, belief in practices, philosophy institutes etc. are not equally common.
The methods of eating, speaking, greeting, dressing, entertaining, living etc. of different sects are quite different. Culture differs from time to time.
No culture has ever been static or variable. If Manu wanted to come back to see Indian society today, he would be upset to see the huge changes in our culture.
10. Culture is super organic and ideological
Sometimes the culture is called super organic. By Super Organic Herbert Spencer it meant that culture is neither biological nor inorganic in nature but above both these. The meaning of the word physical purpose and the social meaning of bodily functions.
Social sense can be independent of physical and physical properties and attributes. For example, the social meaning of the national flag is not just a piece of colorful cloth.
The flag represents a nation. Similarly, priests and prisoners, professors and profane, sportsmen, engineers and doctors, farmers and soldiers and others are not just biological creatures. They are viewed individually in their own society. Their social status and role can only be understood through culture.
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