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Normal or clean air mainly consists of two components: 78.0 9 percent nitrogen and 20.9 4 percent of oxygen. Argon is 0.93 percent, and the remaining 0.04 percent contains at least thirteen other components. Air pollution refers to the concentration of one or more of the rare elements at a higher level found in normal air.
The most common pollutants are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, hydrocarbons, and particles. The attention of these pollutants in the air is detrimental to the health of humans, other animals, and plants and the value of valuable assets and products for humans.
Thus, air pollution shows the condition of the air whose natural component is interrupted by adding some harmful elements in it.
Air pollution is of two types: (i) Natural, and (ii) Man-made pollution. Natural air pollution includes pollen from plants and plants with volcanic and swamps, wind dust, salt spray, steam from leaves and rotating material in the natural environment. But such natural pollutants are adjusted within the global ecology.
Apart from this, natural sources of atmospheric pollution are found all over the world, but man-made pollutants are induced in some scattered areas especially in the environment in industrial areas of the world.
They include automobiles, industrial and domestic emissions using fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal, and waste heat from numerous industrial and domestic sources.
Atmospheric pollutants contribute to atmospheric variability in two ways. First of all, they change the structure of the atmosphere through time, and secondly, they can cause climate change on a different scale.
The nature of pollutants pollution, on the basis of emission, depends on the weather factors and the sync mechanism, remain in the environment for different periods.
Such sinks involve chemical reaction, precipitation and gravity degradation. However, due to the absence of the above mentioned sync, the residual time of these pollutants in the stratosphere is significantly longer than the troposphere; the stratosphere is called a reservoir for man-made aerosol and volcanic particles.
The agency is air for transportation of pollution in the atmosphere. During transport pollutants are subject to oxidation, other gases and reaction with photolysis. Table 42.1 has a list of man-made atmospheric pollutants in which there are potential climate effects.
Carbon dioxide - Large scale fossil fuel is burning for the running of human industry and for home use. Sulfur and nitrogen oxide are discharged into the atmosphere due to the burning of fossil fuels.
It also releases carbon dioxide, water vapor, ash, dust, smoke and heat in the atmosphere. It is interesting to know that approximately 50 percent of the carbon dioxide released in the process has been dissolved in the oceans or has gone into the Earth's biomass; The remaining 50 percent is still present in the environment.
Additional carbon dioxide in the atmosphere adversely affects the terrestrial heat balance. It is a famous fact that carbon dioxide shortwave is practically transparent for solar radiation, but absorbs terrestrial long wave radiation with the resultant warming of the lower atmosphere. The lower atmosphere repeats a portion of the terrestrial radiation that heats the surface of the Earth.
It has been established that the rising rate of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is directly related to the southern oscillation, which refers to fluctuations in atmospheric circulation within a period of two to three years. The ability of the ocean to absorb carbon dioxide depends on the strength of the southern oscillation.
A recent survey conducted by the survey found that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. In the pre-industrial revolution period, the concentration of this gas in the atmosphere was measured at 293-300 ppm. (Per million parts), but at present it is 330 ppm. Has increased till
Most models predict that carbon dioxide concentration will double in about 50 to 75 years. However, there are considerable uncertainties in the model presentations of the carbon cycle.
There is at least one uncertainty regarding the estimates of the natural flow rate of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere, the biosphere and the hydrosphere.
With the estimated population growth rate and better living standards in developing countries, the indication is that the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in the next 200 years is not between four to eight times the current levels. This prediction is based on the fact that consumption of fossil fuels will definitely increase manifold in the future.
The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) jointly organized an international panel on climate change. This international panel recently held a conference in Shanghai, and its report has indicated the future climate change due to the current trend of global warming.
According to the report, by the end of the twenty-first century, the average temperature of the world would increase from 1.4 degrees Celsius to 5.8 degrees Celsius. This will result in an increase of 88 cm in the current sea level.
This increase in sea level will be due to the melting water of the Antarctic ice and ice. Estimated increase in sea levels will put the world's lower countries at risk. The cities located along the beaches will be adversely affected.
According to Pitock (1972), changes in some degree in global average temperatures generally and have significant impact on agriculture especially on society. "A 2 ° C warming will return the Earth to the same condition that was present during the climate-optimal 6000 years ago.
Such changes in the long term may actually be beneficial for some areas: But the rate of change suggested by the data available in the short term puts very much stress on the society. "
According to meteorologists, an increase in carbon dioxide concentration can affect the climate more or less degree. Enhanced carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will definitely increase the acidity of the surface layers of oceans, which will lead to potential changes in biological productivity.
This will definitely affect the surface of the sea, the albedo. It will also affect glaciers and polar ice. It has been suggested that ozone concentration will increase from 2 to 5 percent as a result of stratospheric cooling. Thus long-term atmospheric pressure will also be affected.
Considering the above results of mounting carbon dioxide concentrations, such measures should be known that our industries should continue to grow and the amount of carbon dioxide and other harmful emissions should be kept under control.
Essay on Air Pollution - 1200 Words
The World Health Organization defines air pollution as the presence of materials in the air in this kind of concentration which is harmful to humans and its environment. "
In fact, air pollution is the event or addition of foreign particles, gases and other pollutants in the air which adversely affects humans, animals, vegetation, buildings etc.
Reason for air pollution:
There are various reasons for air pollution:
(i) Combustion of natural gas, petroleum, coal and timber (suit, flysh, CO2, CO, nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide) in industries, automobile, aircraft, railway, thermal plants, agricultural burning, kitchen, etc.
(ii) Metallurgical processing (containing metal pollutants such as mineral dust, fluoride, sulphides and lead, chromium, nickel, beryllium, arsenic, vanadium, cadmium, zinc, mercury).
(iii) Chemical industry with insecticide, fertilizer, weed, fungus.
(v) Processing industries such as cotton textiles, wheat flour mills, asbestos
(vi) Grinding welding, stone crushing, gem.
Natural air pollutants include (A) Pollen, Seeds, (B) Marsh Gas, (C) Volcanic Gases and (A) Lightning Storms and Synthesis of Harmful Chemicals by Solar Flares. The main reason of pollution in urban areas is the automobile, which infects incapacitated petroleum, releases 75% noise and 80% air pollutants. The concentration of industries in one area is another major reason for air pollution.
Impact of air pollution:
Air pollutants are widely classified into particles and gases. Particles include solid and liquid particles. Gase contains substances that are in the gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure. Air pollutants adversely affect humans, animals, plants, buildings. Air pollutants also change the Earth's climate. Beauty pollution is also influenced by air pollutants. Different air pollutants and their effects are as follows:
1. Particulate case:
It is of two types-accessible and suspended. Solving dust contains more than 10 particles (AM) Small particles are able to remain suspended for long periods of time in the air, the particles have significant effects.
(i) The particles of dust and smoke produce irritation of the respiratory tract and produce bronchitis, asthma and lung diseases.
(ii) Smoke is a dark or opaque mist formed by particles of dust and smoke, which has the density of water vapors around it, as well as chemicals such as SO2, H2S, NO2, etc. are attracted. Smog damages the plant's life through glazing and necrosis, availability of light produces respiratory problems in humans and animals.
(iii) Partial material suspended in air, scatter, and partially absorbs light. In industrial and urban areas, sunlight in the summer decreases 1/3 and in winter 2/3 decreases.
(iv) On the concentration of above 150 g / 100 m3, cotton dust in pigmentation process is called pneumonosis or lung fibrosis called bisinosis. The lung fibrosis produced in other industries include asbestosis (in asbestos industry), silicosis (stone grinders), siderosis (iron mill), coal miners' pneumoconosis, dough mill pneumoconosis, etc.
2. Carbon monoxide:
It is 50% of the total atmospheric pollutants. It has been formed by incomplete combustion of carbon fuels in various industries, motor vehicles, heat, kitchen etc. Carbon monoxide is made up of hemoglobin in the blood and reduces its oxygen carrier capacity. At high concentrations, carbon monoxide is fatal.
3. Sulfur Oxide:
They are mainly in the form of sulfur dioxide. It is produced in large quantities during smelting of metal ores and burning of petroleum and coal in industries, thermal plants, home and motor vehicles. In the air, SO2 connects with water to make sulfuric acid (H2SO3), which is the cause of acid rain. This causes chlorosis and necrosis of vegetation. Sulfur dioxide affects humans over 1 ppm. It causes burn in the eyes and injury in the respiratory tract. As a result, the result is the disruption and fall of buildings, statues, painted surfaces, clothes, paper, leather etc.
4. Nitrogen oxide:
They are naturally produced through biological and non-biological activities from nitrates, nitrites, electric storms, high energy radiation and solar flares. Human activity creates nitrogen oxides in the combustion process of industry, automobile, incinerators and nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen oxides act to make paroxic-acid nitrate or pan on unsaturated hydrocarbons. It gives rise to photochemical smoke. They cause eye irritation, respiratory discomfort, blood circulation and arterial disorder.
5. Carbon dioxide:
Due to excessive combustion activity, the content of C2 is constantly increasing. Since carbon dioxide is accumulated in the atmosphere, it absorbs more of the reflective infrared radiation. This can increase the temperature referred to as a green house effect. Melting polar ice cap and glacier can cause sea level to rise, which can flood the majority of the population center and fertile land.
6. Phosgene and Methyl Issinate:
Phosgene (COCL2) is a poisonous and knee-unstable fluid that is employed in the synthesis of dye industry and organic compounds. The release of phosgene and MIC (December 2, 1984) in Bhopal industrial accident killed more than 2500 people and killed several thousand people.
They are widely used as disinfectant. Other sources are jet emissions which contain chlorofluorocarbons. Chlorofluorocarbons are also used in the formation of refrigeration and some types of solid plastic foam. Burning of plastic produces polychlorinated biophhenyl (PCB). The latter are continuous and pass through the food chain. Chlorofluorocarbons and carbon tetrachloride react with the ozone layers of the stratosphere and therefore reduce it.
8. Photochemical Oxidants:
Hydrocarbons have carcinogenic properties. Some of these plants are also harmful because they cause sagacity and exclusion. In the presence of sunlight, hydrocarbons react with nitrogen oxide to produce ozone, peroxic-acid nitrates, aldehyde and other compounds. Peroxici-Acid Nitrate is a major component of air pollution. They cause eye irritation and respiratory disease.
9. Automobile Exhaust:
They are one of the major sources of air pollution. Important pollutants are carbon monoxide, benzephyrin, lead, nitrogen oxides, sulfur compounds and ammonia.
10. Pollen and microorganisms:
In addition to micro-organisms in the atmosphere, directly affect the diseases in plants, animals and humans. Pollen produces allergic reactions in many humans. Common reactions are also collectively called grass-fever. Important allergic pollen is related to amaranthus spinos, chanopodium album, cynodon dactylon, resinus communis, sorghum vulgar, prasopis chilensis etc.
Control of air pollution:
1. Industrial estate should be established at a distance from residential areas.
2. Using the long fireplace, the air pollution in the surrounding environment and the mandatory use of electrostatic preseter in the chimney will be reduced.
3. Removing toxic gases by passing through the smoke through water tower scrubber or spray collector.
4. Use high temperature incinerators for reduction in particle ash production.
5. Development and employment of non-combustible sources of energy, for example, nuclear power, geothermal power, solar energy, tidal power, wind energy etc.
6. Use non-lead anticonaut agents in gasoline.
7. Efforts should be made to develop pollution-free fuels for automobiles, for example, alcohol, hydrogen, battery power. Automobile exhaust emission control should be applied with.
8. Industrial plants and refineries should be planted with equipment for removal and recycling of waste.
9. Growing plants are able to cure carbon monoxide, for example Phygolas Vulgaris, Colos Blumei, Dakus Carrota, Ficus Varigata (Bidwell and Baby, 1974).
10. Enhancing plants capable of metabolizing nitrogen oxides and other gaseous pollutants, for example, Vitice, Pimis, Jetneneparas, Quarkas, Pyrus, Robinia Pseudo-Baba, Wibernam, Ctesages, Ribs, Ramunus.
11. Afforestation of Mining Sector on priority basis.
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