Essay in very simple language with the boundaries of different words here. Here you can find Essay on The Origin of Sociology in English language for 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and banking or other competitive exams students in 1550 words.
Sociology, which is known as the science of society, is one of the oldest and most ancient of social science. It is one of the youngest science because it was recently established as a separate branch of knowledge with its own concepts and its method of inquiry.
Sociology is also one of the oldest in science. Since the beginning of civilization, the society has been in the form of speculation and interrogation with other incidents, which has provoked the restless and inquisitive mind of man.
Even centuries ago, people were thinking about society and it should be considered and organized on the rise and fall of humans and their destiny, people and civilizations. Though he was thinking in social terms, he was called philosopher, historian, thinker, law-giver, or Caesar.
Thus, "It can be widely said that there was four times the origin of sociology: in political philosophy, philosophy of history, biological theories of development and movement for social and political reforms.
However, due to the efforts of French philosopher Auguste Comte, sociology was established in the 19th century as a separate discipline. It is wrong to believe that there was no social idea in front of him.
The men of four thousand years have reflected on the societies in which they lived. In the writings of Plato, Aristotle, Manu Kautilya Confucius, Cicero and others find major efforts to duly deal with the nature of society law, religion, philosophy etc.
Plato Republic, Aristotle's Politics, Economics of Kautilya, Confucius Analytes, Cicero's 'On Justice' are some ancient sources of social thought. However, in the 19th century, sociology was established as an independent science.
Father of Sociology:
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
The French philosopher Auguste Comte is traditionally regarded as the father of sociology. Comte, who invented the term sociology, was the first person to separate the subject matter of sociology from all other sciences. He worked in a series of books, a general approach to the study of society.
Comte is considered as the father of sociology because 'not because of any such important contribution in science, but due to its large impact'. Rather than being a sociologist, it would be better to accept them as a philosopher of science.
Auguste Comte introduced the term sociology for the first time in his famous work 'Positive Philosophy at About 1839'. The word "sociology" is derived from the Latin word 'sosyas', which means companion or associate, and the Greek word 'logos', which means science study.
Thus, the derivation of sociology is an event under natural and accurate laws, which is the object of investigation.
Auguste Comte devoted his main efforts to investigate the nature of human knowledge and tried to classify all the knowledge and analyze ways to achieve it.
They focused on their efforts to determine the nature of human and development. He also worked to establish planned methods to study social events.
Auguste Comte believed that science follows each other in a certain and logical order and that all inquiries are done through a few steps (i.e. religious, spiritual and positive or scientific or empirical). Eventually he reached the final or scientific stage or as soon as he said a positive platform.
In the positive phase, objective observation for speculation is replaced. Physical incidents such as social events, he maintained, can be studied fair using the positive method.
They thought that it was time to inquire into social problems and social events) enter this final phase. Therefore, he recommended that the study of society should be called the science of society, i.e. sociology.
Comte proposed the proposed sociology to study in two main parts: (i) Social Statistics and (ii) Social Mobility. These two concepts represent the basic division in the subject matter of sociology. Social statistics relate to the major institutions of the society such as family, economy or politics.
Sociology is considered as a study in interpersonal relations between such institutions. In Comte's words, "Statistical studies of sociology involve investigating the laws of action and reaction of various parts of the social system. They argued that parts of society can not be studied separately," as if their Had an independent existence nearby ".
If the Statistical Checks focuses on how social mobility relates to the parts of the society, then focusing on the entire society as a unit of analysis and disclosure - how they have developed and changed through time.
He said, "We must remember that the rules of social mobility are related to the largest society when they belong to the largest society."
Comte was convinced that all the societies went through certain steps of development and they were moving towards increasing perfection.
He realized that the comparative study of the entire society was a major subject for social analysis. His main functions are: (i) Positive philosophy and (ii) positive politics.
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
This Englishman was Herbert Spencer, who was known as one of the most intelligent intelligent men of modern times, who made a great deal to establish sociology as a systematic discipline.
His three volumes of the principles of sociology were published in 1877, where the first systematic study was primarily devoted to social analysis. He was more precise than Comte in specifying the topics of special areas of sociology.
According to Spencer, in the areas of sociology, the social studies of organizations, communities, division of labor, social discrimination and stratification, the sociology of knowledge and science and the study of art and aesthetics have been mentioned.
Herbert Spencer emphasized the obligation of sociology to deal with interactions between various elements, in his story, how the parts are fully influenced and in turn related to it.
He emphasized that sociology should take the entire society as a note for its analysis. He said that sections of society have not been systematically arranged.
There were some continuous relationships in parts and it made society such a meaningful "unit" as a suitable subject for scientific inquiry.
Another contribution of Herbert Spencer is his famous "organic analogy" in which the society is compared with the human organism. Spencer was influenced by the theory of organic development of his contemporary, Charles Darwin.
Even LF wards, summer and giddings which were highly influenced by the biology of society, were advocated by the principles of sociology and human beings vs. humans.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
French thinker Prof. like Spencer Dirham considers the Society as important units of social analysis. They emphasized the importance of studying different types of society in comparatively. "Comparative sociology is not a special branch of sociology, it is sociology." He said.
In the theory of Dirham, the ultimate social reality group is, in the context of social facts individual social life should not be analyzed. According to him, there is nothing other than collective methods to think, feel and act on social facts, which come from personal "obstruction" or pressure.
These social facts are a proper study of sociology and all those social events should be reduced, he said. Apart from this, he realized that every social fact should be related to a certain social environment, which is for a certain type of society. "
Emile Durkheim also mentioned various areas of ethics including social sociology, sociology of religion, sociology of law and political organizations, social organizations, sub-divisions on marriage and family.
Sociology of crime, value sociology including sub-section on measurement of business groups, demography including studies on urban and rural communities, and aesthetics.
Their main functions are the division of labor in society, rules of social system, suicides, primary forms of republican life etc.
Max Weber (1864-19 20)
The approach of Max Weber is almost the opposite of Dirkham. For Webber, the person is a unit of society. He said that the search of social laws is nothing but human resources to understand.
Social law in its system "There are experienced established or statistically generalizations of the course of social behavior, in which an explanation can be given in the context of specific objectives and intentions.
Social method is the combination of irreversible or statistical generalization with versteen (understanding) interpretation, with the help of an ideal type of behavior, which is considered to be rational or objective.
Weber devoted most of his efforts to expanding a particular method of understanding for the study of social events. He emphasized the importance of maintaining neutrality and neutrality of value judgment in social, science.
They wrote a lot on topics like religion, various aspects of economic life, workers' wealth and division, political parties and political organization and authority, bureaucracy and large scale organization, class and caste, city and other forms of other varieties. music.
Their influence of contemporary sociologists, particularly analytical schools, is growing rapidly. His main works are: Economics and society, the spirit of protesting ethics and capitalism, city and bureaucracy and various other books and essays.
These four founding fathers "Comte, Spencer, Dirham and Weber - seem to agree on the proper subject of sociology.
(1) First of all, they urged sociologists to study a wide range of states from the family.
(2) Secondly, they agreed that a unique subject for sociology is found in inter-relationships between different institutions.
(3) Third, they came to the consensus on the opinion that the whole society can be taken as a specific unit of social analysis. He gave a talk of sociology to explain why and why the society is same or different.
(4) In the end, he insisted that sociology should focus on social activities or social relations despite their institutional setting. This idea was most clearly expressed by Weber.