Essay in very simple language with the boundaries of different words here. Here you can find Essay on The Climate of India in English language for 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and banking or other competitive exams students in 1200 words.
India is a vast country having different types of climate in its different parts. These differences in the climate are determined by (i) location, (ii) altitude, (iii) distance from sea or the mountains and (iv) the general relief or topography.
Yet its climate is labeled as ‘Monsoon climate’. The south, due to its proximity to the equator always remains warm while some parts of the north due to high mountains experience cold with temperatures dipping below freezing point in winter. In most part of India, we experience four seasons, i.e., winter, spring, summer and the rainy season.
What causes winter in our country? When the sun shines in the southern hemisphere, due to tilting of earth’s axis, the angle of the sun rays becomes less in the northern hemisphere, i.e., the distance sun rays travel increases. As they have to traverse greater length of atmosphere, greater scattering of sunrays takes place and this keeps the weather cold.
In northern India, winter is experienced more bitterly than in the southern part. Southern part of the country is peninsular plateau. It is surrounded by the Arabian Sea in the west and by the Bay of Bengal in the east; the Indian Ocean lies in the south. Due to sea breeze, this part enjoys warmth; the minimum temperature remains about 20o + 2o C with very little variation in the daily maximum temperature, whereas in the north temperature in the plains comes down to 10o C with wide variation in daily minimum and maximum temperature.
In the extreme north, hilly regions, due to their being at greater height from the sea, experience extreme cold with temperatures going below zero degree with huge variation in day and night temperatures. Cold wind blowing from the mountainous regions towards plains further brings down the temperature.
When the sunrays start falling on the northern hemisphere, more directly, the Indian sub-continent grows warmer and the spring season sets in. by May-June, sun shines very brightly and the summer is in full swing.
In the middle of June, monsoon sets in and rains start almost all over the country accompanied by heat and moisture. Most parts of the country have maximum rainfall in this period, only a small part of southern India, i.e., the eastern coastal part has winter rainfall. By the end of the rainy season, winter sets in again.
Most parts of India enjoy summer rainfall. Rains are caused when vapor-containing warm wind meets a cold front, this can happen when the wind rises and is blocked by the high mountains. On cooling, the water vapor precipitates as raindrops.
In the summer season when the northern part of the country becomes very hot, air pressure in the region becomes very low. At the same time the southwest region, because of the Arabian Sea, and the southeast region, because of the Bay of Bengal, remain comparatively less hot and the air pressure there is high.
Thus wind filled with vapor from sea, the high-pressure area, and blows towards land the low-pressure area. These winds are checked by the Western Ghat Mountains in the south and by the chain of hills and the Himalayan Mountains in the north causing rainfall. For example, the wind which rises from the Arabian Sea towards land is obstructed by the Western Ghat Mountains causing heavy rainfall (300-400 cm) on the coastal region but when it rises above these hills and crosses to the other side, the wind contains very little moisture, resulting in very little rain (20-30 cm) behind Western Ghats on the southern plateau. Thus the dry southern peninsula is called the “rain shadow” area. The wind which blows towards Gujarat and Rajasthan blows unchecked up to the hills and does not cause rain during its onward journey. When these winds are checked by the hills, they cause much more rain near the mountain but when pushed back contain less moisture causing little rain and leaving parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat dry.
Winds, which rise from the Bay of Bengal, are checked by the mountains in the east and cause heavy rainfall in Bengal and Assam. It is only due to these hills that this moisture-laden wind is checked at Chearapunji, which at one time experienced the heaviest rainfall in the world.
These winds change their direction and move towards the west covering plains of Bihar, Utter Pradesh and Punjab. They cause greater rainfall at the start of their journey, which gradually decreases as these winds precede towards west. So the quantum of rainfall decreases from east to west. These rains are known as Monsoons.
Although winter rains are generally low in India, there is a winter rain in the eastern coast of southern India. Let's see what is the reason for the winter rain. In winter, the northern part of the country is cold and air pressure is very high but southern India is hot due to the Gulf of Bengal and the Bay of Bengal and the pressure is low. Therefore, winds blowing from the northern part of India to the southern part. Since air comes out of the ground, it is dry and cool. However, it raises moisture from the Bay of Bengal and goes towards the eastern coast. When checked by Eastern Ghats, there is rains in the eastern coastal area, due to which the winter is good.
In the summer or winter, most of the country has moderately heavy monsoon rains, we will talk more about monsoon rain. One of the characteristics of monsoon rain is its uncertainty. Rain may start early and end soon or it starts late and ends quickly. This can sometimes start early and it's too late. Heavy rains may occur in some years and may be reduced in some years, resulting in drought conditions.
The rain varies from one part of the country to another. You have often heard that there is a flood in some parts while at the same time, some other areas are dry. Rainwater is an important contributor to our economy because our agriculture is largely based on rain water. Pumping ground water for all agriculture will be very expensive. It can also cause salinity due to high salt content.
In large parts of the country, farmers have to depend on monsoon rain mostly. Apart from its compulsory role in irrigation, water is an important factor in our daily life. It is considered one of the quality standards of life in the country. With the rapid reduction of drinking water in many areas in India, the lowest level of municipal consumption is in the world. Droughts and floods inhibit the lives of several thousand people every year, besides creating many environmental problems.
A few years ago, in Tamil Nadu and Gujarat we had a shortage of acute water. Perhaps this was an initial warning that there was an urgent need to think seriously about water conservation and management of agriculture, industrial and urban areas. There are also many water pollutants due to the dumping of toxic or hazardous chemicals in rivers and other water bodies. We need to develop immediate sound and economically efficient water conservation and management policies.