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The Indian Constitution
The Constitution defines our national goals of citizens, democracy, socialism and secularism, guaranteeing equality, freedom, justice etc. It provides our fundamental rights and duties and includes instructions for the government. It tells us about the intentions of our great leaders who have prepared us and given us their constitution.
Farming our constitution
Indians were demanding complete independence from 1929. Finally, in 1945, Mr. Clement Attlee, who sympathized with the Indians, became the Prime Minister of England. He sent the Cabinet Mission to India to solve the political problem (whether it is to split the country or to leave it together) and to create a means to give its independence. It recommended that there should be a Constituent Assembly to prepare the Constitution of India. The Constituent Assembly of India came under the temporary chairmanship of Sachchidanand Sinha, because he was then the largest member of the Assembly, and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as his permanent President.
In the Constituent Assembly, those members were elected, who were elected by the members of the provincial legislatures and not directly by the people. Its members had represented most of the parties through most of the Congress members. For this reason, the Muslim League obstructed its work and boycotted it from its beginning.
However, on December 9, 1946, the Assembly started its work in the Central Hall of Parliament House.
Our constitution provides democratic government. This means that all citizens of our country have the right to decide matters related to state government. The government is for people and people, in real people, for people.
All persons above 18 years have the right to choose their government. People choose their representatives from the government. It is through these representatives, who have the support of most people; Decisions are taken in political matters. This is called political democracy.
India is the world's largest democracy. In democracy, all people have some rights and freedoms. But the only political democracy, the right to choose the government, is not enough. Social democracy is also needed. In democracy, all citizens should be treated equally. Each is given equal opportunities in spite of its caste, creed, religion and gender.
Political democracy has no meaning without social democracy. Unless we provide equal justice and equal opportunities for all, we will not be able to enjoy the fruits of freedom. We must have political and social democracy.
Fundamental rights are considered to be the soul of our Constitution. The Constitution guarantees equal rights and privileges of all citizens. These fundamental rights are necessary because they not only provided security and equality to all the citizens, but also ensured the overall development of the individual and thus the development of the nation.
The Constitution of India provides six fundamental rights to its citizens. He conducted an inquiry on the complete and disappointing nature of the government. These rights are justified and no citizen can be denied. The court ensures its compliance by the state. They protect the citizens more than the Executive and the Legislature.
Right to Equality:
Our society has been divided on various issues from very early age. For a long time, the caste system to split the society. The lower caste people were not given equal privileges and opportunities like upper caste. Then the British made a class of landlords and feudal lords who were very hard on the common people. The titles given by the British make them different from others.
Therefore, the right to equality is extremely important to our constitution. It establishes equality before law. Article 14 guarantees the equality of all persons before the Constitution. Article 15 prohibits any discrimination based on race, caste, sex and religion. It eliminates untouchability. It shows that all citizens can use public employment.
All titles like 'Sir', Rai Bahadur, Khan Bahadur, have been abolished by the Constitution to remove class distinctions and maintain equality. Article 18 prevents the state from giving such titles. It can only provide military or academic prizes. No Indian citizen is permitted to accept any title from any foreign state, especially if he is employed in government job, without the permission and consent of the President of India.
Right to freedom:
In a democratic country like ours, it is very important to protect a person's freedom. Citizens have been given separate and collectively six liberties. They are:
a. Freedom of speech and expression;
B. Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms;
C. Freedom to create organizations or associations;
D. Freedom to move freely across India;
E. Freedom to live and settle in any part of the country; And
F. Freedom to practice a profession or to run any business, business or business.
But there are some restrictions or limitations on these freedoms. For example, the right to freedom of speech is not that we can say anything to anyone. Our freedom of speech does not empower us to make statements that are not in the interest of the security of the country or reject our relations with other countries.
Similarly, the right to freedom of movement is also subject to certain restrictions because any part of the country has the right to live. Keeping in mind the security of the state, the state can ban the purchase of property in a few different areas.
Right against exploitation:
This right protects people from any exploitation by society. In the factory or mine or any other dangerous job, children under 14 years of age are not allowed to be employed. This provision in the constitution prevents women and children from particularly ill treatment. It also bans forced labor.
Light for freedom of religion:
India is a secular state. All people are entitled to freedom of religion. They are free to publicize, practice and publicize their religion. Though most of India's population is Hindu, Sikhism, Christianity and all other religions like Islam are given equal respect. The State considers all religions equally. The only restriction on this right is that nothing should be done which can provoke religious passion and cause communal tension.
Cultural and educational rights:
India is the land of diversity. The Constitution grants the right to safeguard and preserve all groups, sects and minorities. They are free to run their educational institutes and teach their children accordingly. However, they can not deny admission to any candidate who wishes to join such schools and colleges.
Right to Constitutional Treatment:
This right empowers every citizen, who feels that his rights are being encroached upon to transfer the Supreme Court, High Court or any other court. The court has the power to review whether any person's rights have been denied or not. The Supreme Court is the patron of our fundamental rights. In fact, without these rights, other rights would be quite meaningless.
The constitution gives us fundamental rights, but with every right there is a duty. If we have some rights, then we also have some duties towards our country. According to the 42nd Amendment in the Constitution, the fundamental duties are as follows:
1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions; National flag and national anthem;
2. To follow and follow the great ideals which inspired our national struggle for independence;
3. To maintain and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
4. To protect the country on the call and to provide national service;
5. Promote the feeling of goodwill and common brotherhood among all the people of India who pursue religious, linguistic and territorial or departmental diversity; Discarding abusive practices for women's dignity;
6. To protect and preserve the rich heritage of our entire culture;
7. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and compassion for living beings;
8. Develop a scientific temper, humanism and a sense of inquiry and improvement;
9. To protect public property and to eliminate violence; And
10. To strive towards excellence in all areas of personal and collective activity so that the nation reaches a high level of constant effort and achievement.