The N.N.O. was formed in 1945 after the end of the Second World War. At present almost all the countries of world are its members. Every year 24th October is celebrated as the U.N. Day throughout the world. The headquarters of the U.N. is in New York.
The U.N.O. was a committee of nations. The original need was for a world body to strive and keep peace in the world after the end of the Second World War. The brains behind the big move were the Big Three-Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin. A conference was called at San Francisco which was attended by all the Allied Powers. It prepared a charter of international peace –the Atlantic Charter. Ironically enough, the Atlantic Charter was hammered home on the Pacific coast of San Francisco! The official languages of the U.N. are English, French, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Spanish. The working languages are English and French only.
The first committee of the U.N.O was the Security Council. It has five permanent members- the U.S.A, Russia, United Kingdom, France and Nationalist China- who were equally vested with the right of veto over any question, so that unless and until all these five powers agreed upon a question, it could not be carried through in the Security Council. That precedent continues right upto now. Only that China is not the Communist China represented there, but the China of Chiang Kai-Shek in Formosa. The seating of Communist China and the unseating of Formosa has been one of the most burning topics in the U.N.O.
The other units of the U.N.O. are the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice and Trusteeship Council. Each member-nation is represented on the general Assembly but the Security Council has only 11 members of whom the five are permanent and the rest elected by the General Assembly by rotation.
Another wing is the International Court of Justice appointed by the General Assembly at The Hague. One of the most popular wings of the U.N.O. is U.N.E.S.C.O. (United Nation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) which is headquartered at Paris. The U.N.O. itself has its headquarters at New York.
The U.N.O. shares great responsibilities without having equally great powers. It has done a solid job in Korea, Indo-China, Suez and the Congo in preventing major international conflicts and maintaining peace and order in the affricated countries. Indian troops have played a great part in the all these theatres of conflict and clash. In other fields, the U.N.O. has equally proved beneficial to humanity. It is trying to give man freedom from ignorance and disease also. It takes care of the handicapped children throughout the world. Now it has more than one hundred nations as its members. Its secretariat is in New York. Each member-nation contributes its share of the expenses of the U.N.O.-the big powers, however, pay more than the small nations.
It has been proposed that the U.N.O. should have and army of its own and it should also be entrusted with legislative powers for the whole world. But this dream is still to be realized. The U.N.O. has become a hot-bed of politics. Only the sanity in the world leaders can save this organization as well as the humanity.