The science and technology has a major role to play in modern life of a man. From the days of communications with pigeons, the time has ripen where the information floats. The scientists and technologists had made many achievements in recent past. Among all these achievements computers has its own place. The first automatic electronic computer was made in Pennsylvania in 1946 and known as ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator). Since then it has changed the pattern of doing work easily and quickly. It has also revolutionized the whole world.
The computers vary tremendously in size, from desk top models to huge machines occupying an entire room or even more, but they all contain the same components which came under the heading of hardware and software. Hardware is the term, given to all the machines that make up a computer and the collection of machines is called a computer configuration. Software refers to the programmes that instruct the machine.
There are two basic types of computers: digital and analogue. Both types are highly complex systems of electrical circuits to carry out complicated calculations or to solve difficult problems. The hybrid is a third type which consists of a combination of the other two. The digital computer is basically a counting machine. A small digital computer is able to multiply, divide, subtract and add, all at a high speed, which are electrically powered and operated by hand like typewriters. Larger digital computers receive data or information on punched-cards or magnetic tape. This data is read by the unit called the reader, which converts it into a form usable by computer. The analogue computers are specially designed to deal with particular problems such as guiding moon rockets.
Today the computers permeate the whole world of work, in homes, in factories, in schools, in hospitals, in offices, in hotels etc. because it is an enormously flexible tool that can be used in a wide variety of ways; depending on needs and available resources. The computers are effective in individualizing education, in simplifying the extensive record keeping. Therefore, familiarity with the computers is considered a strong vocational advantage and saleable skill.
The computers are here to stay in the modern world and the more we understand them, the better will be the days ahead of us. For with their help and skills, the present can be utilized to predict what is sure to come and be well prepared to meet the challenge.