The Constitution lays down that "the executive power of a State shall be vested in the Governor and all executive action shall be taken in his name." His powers can be grouped as under:
(i) Executive: The executive power of the State is vested in the Governor. The Governor appoints the Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as its head and they hold office at his pleasure. The advice given to him by the Council of Ministers is confidential and cannot be enquired into by any court of law. The Governor also appoints important officials of the State Public Service Commission, judicial appointments below those of the judges of High Courts, etc. He is consulted by the President while making appointment of judges of the High Courts of his State.
The Chief Minister must communicate to the Governor all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to administration and legislation.
(ii) Legislative: The Governor summons, adjourns and prorogues State legislature. He can dissolve the Legislative Assembly. All Bills passed by the Assembly must be referred to him for final approval. He can return the Bill for reconsideration. At the commencement of the first session of the legislature every year. The Governor delivers on address. He may send messages to the legislature recommending measures for legislation. He enjoys the power of promulgating ordinances during the recess of the State legislature, but such ordinances cease to be effective six weeks after the reassembly of the legislature unless approved earlier. The Governor nominates one-sixth of the total strength of the legislative council from amongst distinguished people in various fields.
(iii) Financial: No Money Bill or financial measure or amendment on financial matters can be introduced in the Legislative Assembly without the recommendation of the Governor. He sees that the budget is laid before the State Legislature every year. But the Governor must give his assent to a Money Bill. He has no veto power in cases of Money Bills.
(iv) Judicial. The Governor has the power to pardon, commute or suspend sentence of any person convicted of any offence relating to the executive power of the State.
(v) Miscellaneous: During emergency, the Governor can act regardless of the advice of his Ministers. But he must act according to the directions of the President.