Ever since man was born he has been disturbing the earth’s ecological balance by cutting down trees, killing animals and indulging in similar activities for food and shelter. With the increase in population man’s demands from nature increased. The advent of modern technology enabled him to gain control over nature, further disturbing the balance. The resultant industrial pollution has threatened the existence of wild animals to such an extent that certain species have become extinct.
Though the exploitation of wild life in India may be justified on the grouds of economic advantages, it is necessary to take protective measures before all rare species are exterminated.
The instinct to preserve nature has prevailed from times immemorial through the centuries, Kautilya, Ashoka and the Moghuls had shown great concern for protecting forests and animals. After independence the government took over the responsibility of conserving wildlife, particularly the rare species.
Over 220 forested tracts were declared sanctuaries and national parks where natural habitat could be provided to rare animals. Though several boards (Indian Board for Wildlife and Sate Wildlife Board) and advisory bodies have been set up since 1952, the Asiatic Lion and Blue Whale are facing extinction.
One successful wildlife conservation scheme so far has been the Project Tiger launched in 1973 at the Corbett National Park. This has not only increased the population of tigers but has also helped other species like the deer and associated animals. The success of the project has proved that it is important to associate different agencies in the conservation endeavors. It is essential to understand that wildlife is necessary for the existence of human life.