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Essay on Deforestation - 500 Words
Kudos was one of the honest people of Kerala when he started the program of 'Shrimatanam' in the early nineties. He started planting trees in memory of the dead. It is a living cemetery that helps in improving ecology.
Even a simple person knows that forests invite water clouds, provide wood, natural nitrogenes are the source of compost, protect soil from soil, suck underground water and shade small plants and Provide security. Forests are also providing many fruits including pineapple, coconut and charoli. They have now come under regular plantation.
This is due to the absence of trees that Rajasthan is less or less in the desert area. Yet people, contractors and even government agencies are denying the forest. In Karnataka, the Kashi of Kana and the Chipko movement of Almora and Apiko movement have not stopped killing the liberal creation of nature, which protects the environment.
In Uttar Pradesh, hill forests in Dune valley, Shimla in Himachal Pradesh, Mahabaleshwar of Maharashtra and Mahendragiri in the south have brought a destruction in these areas. Trees have fallen on the name of commercial mining and tourism. In Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, huge areas have been brought under cultivation after the fall of the tree. The heavy dams in Punjab, Orissa and the South have approved many forest areas. Sardar Sarovar Narmada project is not the last nail in the forest of the forest.
Due to the increase in the population, it has fallen on ax forest areas for residential needs and for purchasing agricultural needs. Due to coal mining, forest property has already been extinguished in the Bihar-Bengal-Orissa border belt.
No effort has been made to rehabilitate the area consuming trees with trees. With the increase in the population in the Indian subcontinent, there has been a general increase in defense forces in India to face the danger from Pakistan, Bangladesh and foreign forces beyond the north eastern region of seven sisters of Assam and other states.
The problem of Nagherol National Park in Karnataka is a little different but equally serious. The Kabini dam had sank 10,000 acres of land in the late sixties and seventies. To transfer the displaced non-tribal population, 9000 acres of forest land was cleared from the trees. Adivasis were taken to Nagharol National Park. The Government wants to move the tribal life in 54 habitations and 2000 hectares area within the park. It is planning to provide housing, hospitals and schools in the settlement located near Hunanahosalli on Hunsur-Nagahrol road.
But tribals, especially in the Maladadi Hadi region, the 70 Kurbah families who live near the tribes of the Raskrover area are opposed to their transfer. They also have interest in neglecting tribal forests. They have sanctioned more than 300 acres of forest land. They lease Keralites to land to grow and charge ginger. 2000 per acre from them There are 66,500 male 27,600 cattle living in 96 villages located within 5 km of the park perimeter. This high proportion of cattle (two for one person) provides dung, sold as fertilizer. Animals feed in the jungle without charge, and when grown up, the neighbors are sent to slaughter houses in Kerala.
Essay on Deforestation - 1450 Words
The destruction of forest is called deforestation. Deforestation has a profound impact on human life and the environment.
According to a survey of forest department, there are approximately 75 million hectare forest area in India.
Recently collected satellite imagery data has shown that only 17 percent of the area is covered by forest. India is losing 1.3 million hectares of forest annually. Deforestation in the mountainous area is so intense that the economy and ecology of the region are severely affected.
The basic vegetation of the Himalayas has been completely destroyed, resulting in a gradual loss of natural habitat and a threat to natural resources. Due to higher population, industrialization, urbanization, road construction, mining and other development activities, natural habitats of flora and fauna are troubling due to which there is heavy pressure on living resources.
Many plant and animal species are on the brink of extinction or endangered species. Forest deforestation can also be caused by many unfavorable factors like landslides, droughts, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, diseases, water and air pollution and human intervention. Other adverse factors such as stable soil, dryness, swamps, biological agencies, commercial exploitation etc. can also be responsible for reducing forest vegetation. India's natural diversity is one of the richest people in the world, which is slowly disappearing due to the above factors.
According to the FAO report, the annual deforestation rate in India was 0.6 percent (0.34 million hectares during the period from 1981 to 1990). According to Ravindra Nath and Hall (1994), 1.44 million hectare was affirmed every year. In 1990, the total forested area in India was 70.6 million hectares, out of which 27 percent were subject to commercial gardens, mainly including Nilgiri, teak and pine.
According to Khusu (1986), the total area under forest in the world was approximately 7000 million hectares. In 1900, it was reduced to 2890 million hectare by 1975. The destruction of forest cover in the ecologically sensitive Himalayan region has started showing adverse effects of water, recurrent landslides, floods, high sediment in rivers, deficiency of fuel and fodder and depletion in grazing land. Deforestation life support systems are upset. The underground water table is gradually going deeper and deeper. The large area of land is drought and is affected by wells, tube wells, lakes, ponds etc., during the summer months it is dried up faster than expected.
In the Kumaon and Garhwal Himalayas, oak forests are maintaining normal environment and the villages are largely dependent on these rats for fodder, fuel and some other requirements. But now the oak forests are being destroyed to meet the growing demands of the people. As a result, environmental conditions have changed.
Consequently, herbal flora and microbial communities associated with oak are destroyed. It can cause damage to medicinal herbs and shrubs associated with oak. Availability of fodder will be reduced and old animal links of age will be broken in mountain ecosystem.
At the Earth Conference in Rio de Janeiro (1992), the issue related to deforestation was a major concern. The agenda 21 of the UNCD (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) 21 said: "Deforestation is the result of many reasons; Some natural, but mainly due to human development, such as improper land work system and incentives, Expansion, lack of information and understanding about the increase in forest product demand and the value of forest. "
Review of available literature has disclosed the following facts about Indian forests:
1. Permanent withdrawal volume of fuel wood from Indian forests is much less than the requirement of population.
2. Livestock population in India can be permanently supported by available land and forest resources.
3. Industrial wood and other wood demand, whose share is currently being met by imports, will continue to increase in industrial and economic development.
4. Irregular and increasing deforestation of non-wood forest production will result in loss of biodiversity.
5. Extension of protected area network will increase the pressure on existing productive forests.
Causes to deforestation:
Various causes of deforestation are as follows:
The exaggerated new forests in the forests destroy the growth. It makes the soil more compact and indecent. Due to the destruction of organic matter the soil becomes less fertile. The seeds of some species are not germinated in highly grazing soils resulting in decrease in species. Overgrazing also leads to desertification.
Pets are thus deprived of their natural pasture and forage support. Overgrazing also accelerates soil erosion. As a result of soil erosion, the removal of minerals and nutrients from the top soil results in adverse effects and adversely affect the soil structure which ultimately reduces productivity.
Satellite imagery data indicates that the area under grazing land is seriously degraded. Uncontrolled and indiscriminate pasture in the forest causes degradation in the soil of the jungle and affects the natural resurgence of forests.
2. Transferring agriculture:
This is the most common in north-eastern India because cultivation of heavy water harvesting is known locally as Jhoom. Many farmers destroy the forest for agricultural and commercial purposes and when the soil fertility is eliminated due to crop failure, a new forest area is destroyed. Therefore, farmers should be advised to use the same land for farming and implement better farming methods. It is estimated that about one million hectares of land every year become disorganized by transferring agriculture.
3. Fuel wood:
Forest wood is the maximum destruction for fuel wood. About 85 percent of the total fuel wood in the rural areas and 15 percent in urban areas is used. As per the estimation of Forest Survey Survey (1987) in the annual area of 134 million tonnes of annual fire wood in the rural areas and 23 million tonnes in 1987, the annual demand for fire wood in the country was 235 million cubic meters. Thus, fuel wood is a major factor for deforestation.
4. Forest fire:
The main reason for the destruction of forests in India is often the fire. Some fire is accidental while most of them are deliberate. According to a study conducted by India's Forest Survey (1996), 53.1% of forest vegetation is affected by fire. Data further indicates that the fire annually destroys approximately 0.5 million hectares of forests.
Timber and plywood industries are mainly responsible for the destruction of wood trees. Thus, increasing demand for timber has decreased rapidly due to forests. According to India's Forest Survey, the permitted cut of wood from the forest was only 12 million cubic meters against the annual demand of more than 27 million cubic meters.
6. Industry establishment:
Sometimes the factories are established after the destruction of forests. Thus there is an irreversible loss for a small profit. In this process precious plants, wild animals and rare birds are destroyed and there is adverse effects on the quality of the environment. A factory should be set up on the waste land away from the urban population. Supply of raw materials to forest based industries is another major reason for forest destruction in hills. Forest based industries such as tar and turpentine industry are also responsible for the destruction of trees in the hills.
7. Encroachment of the forest:
Another reason for deforestation in India is encroachment by the tribes on agriculture and other purposes. According to India's Forest Survey, about 7 million hectares of forest land have been encroached for agriculture. Although such land is a good contribution to agricultural production, it still creates environmental hazard. In the forest land in agricultural land
8. Forest disease:
Due to parasitic fungus, rust, viruses and nematodes, many diseases cause death and decay of forest plants. Due to the attack of nematodes, young plantations are destroyed due to many diseases like heart rot, blister jung, oak desire, floc necrosis and Dutch elm disease. Large number of forest trees damage
9. Land slide:
Due to deforestation, it has been observed that the natural process of setting up and rejecting large irrigation projects due to the construction of roads and railways, especially in hilly areas, due to forests, has led to a spurt in natural process.
10. Ravine formation:
Forests and fields of agriculture along the banks of the big rivers (Yamuna and Chambal) are facing severe threat of soil erosion. Once the bay is made, they destroy the vegetative cover.
11. Population increase:
In 1951, India's population was 36 million, which is expected to reach 1.05 billion (105 million) by 2010 AD. In 1960-61, the number of people on agricultural land hectare became 5 in 1990-9 1. Due to this kind of increase, there is an acute shortage of land. In addition to agriculture, forest areas have also been changed in other areas.