Modernization and tradition of politics have its own special significance. These two elements exist in the two political systems of each country. Modernization reflects the state of development, while the traditional situation is unusual.
Traditional elements appear somewhere in some modern Western civilizations. From this point of view, even in the political system of India, traditional Abhayas are a beautiful creation of modern elements. Emotional development: Before Independence, India's political system was completely traditional, that is, the society was based on old prejudices, superstitious beliefs Governance was ruled by a person
Traditionally, the society was backward, the politics was based on the monarchy, the interests of the kings were not given attention to public interest. He was attached to pleasure and luxury. After achieving independence, the society was backward in India as a social, political, but democratic system.
Therefore, the political system has also progressed towards modernism, public interest was paramount. The Constitution was created to protect the interests of the people, focus was focused on economic, social, political development. Modernization was adopted in political structures.
It is to say that the entry of modernization in political and social systems was in reality but in reality the traditional influence or conditions of Indian society was not completely abolished. Conservatives, superstition, racism, illiteracy were present in the society. Therefore, in the Indian political system, both elements still exist.
Clearly, the Indian political system is neither completely traditional nor modern. He is moving towards the traditional elements with modern elements. Therefore, an attempt was made to keep pace between continuity and change in India and a political system emerged which is free from both elements of ancient times and innovation.
The characteristic of all political systems: Combination of modernity and tradition Some political systems are very modern in some countries, some are very traditional, traditional elements also appear in western countries, which are considered as the forms of modern civilization. For example, the British political system that is considered modern, but due to the institutions of Lord House, monarchy etc., it appears in a traditional form.
Third world countries adopted Western political institutions, which were considered modern after World War II, but here the society remained here with a blend of modernity and tradition.
In this approach, even in Indian politics, on one hand, modernity and traditions appear on a beautiful and large scale, on the other hand, the conflict between them appears on the other side. Some thinkers have expressed their opinion that India's political structure is modern and Indian social structure is traditional.
In India, there has been an effort to reverse the modern political structure with relevant social structure. As a result, political institutions can not be caught today, the traditional system in India is going to adopt rapidly in the form of modernization because India is a developing society, changes and prices are coming in the traditional ideals.
Therefore, traditional social institutions have come in contact with politics and have started appearing in the changed form. By studying different traditional and modern elements, it will become clear to us how these two elements are affecting Indian society and politics.
Traditional society is conservative. Different sides of this society are ruled by the belief of human life, and in this context, the importance of scientific approach and logic is not given importance. In the traditional society, superstition and religion are prevalent.
In a traditional society, the social status of a human is determined and determined by its birth. In this society, karma has no significance or equality, because this society is based on a particular class and elements like caste and religion are given special significance.
In such a society, the integrity and goodwill of the person is also narrow. Priority is given instead of national interests, ethnic, religious and local interests. The political system here is not divided into different parties, but the same person governs all the legislative, judicial and administrative in the government.
Due to illiteracy, people become slaves of the masses, and as a result, the effect of a strong form of superstition and the increase of candidate increases. Man does not give importance to misery and karma and lives with the help of God and fate.
Many elements of traditionality are prevalent in Indian society and political system. At present, there is a modern political system of social order of India, its form is still included
Knowing about active social elements in Indian modern politics is also very important and this has led to constant change in Indian politics. Even today, the influence of Raja-Maharaj and the full feudal system is in the electoral system. The organization of Indian society has been done on the basis of caste and the caste is well affecting the administrative and political system of India.
Political parties decide on caste basis while selecting their candidates in the elections. Racism has been adopted as an instrument in the election. Ethnic organizations are in the form of pressure group of political importance.
Religions and cult play an important role in Indian politics due to religious diversity, different types of tensions arise in society. In politics of elections, religion and community plays an important role in Indian politics. Due to religious diversity, different types of stress are produced in society.
Election politics has raised the negative importance of religion and sect. In fact, sect has become the vote bank of political parties. Due to racism, in the rural community, in terms of rituals, I get the highest place of Brahmin today.
Religious leaders, such as imams, clerics, religious teachers, etc. appeal to the effect of voting behavior. The nature of the process of prudent change is: Modernization. As a result of social, social work and economic development, political changes are usually given the name of political modernization.
There are also some characteristics of political modernization: The increase in the importance of political power is a sign of political modernization, because here all centralization of the political power of all the forces and the activities of human life have started to be centralized.
In the modern political society, interaction of the center and the premises increases very much. The society is referred to in the campus, and the center refers to the political system. Political parties, interests and pressures, bureaucracy and elections continue to increase and stay in mutual contexts
Continuation is also maintained through communication. In this system the government has direct contact with people. In modern political societies, traditional, religious, ethnic and family power is replaced by a cosmopolitan and national political power. When the traditional form of governance begins to weaken and national political power is established at its place, then it is the main propagation of modernization of politics.
Therefore, in modern political systems, the specialization and diversification of political institutions is mandatory. There is more public participation in this type of arrangement and changes in the attitude of citizens have changed.
After knowing the characteristics of the modern political system, it can be said that in this system the concentration of the state and the political system is increasing in all areas of Indian life.
Remote areas and villages have also come to the state premises. The establishment of a public welfare state has made people accessible to people as easy and simple. There is continuous increase in mutual proximity and dialogue between society and the state.
Consequently, the elements of religion, movement and the elements of the feudal system are ending and the national political power is becoming firm. Due to Panchayati Raj and Democratic decentralization, public participation in the government is increasing and discrimination has been established in different departments of administration, executive, judiciary and legislature.
According to Morris Jones, the modern language of politics is the language of the Constitution and the courts of India, the debate in the parliament, the process of high administration, the role of political parties, etc. everything is modern. Political modernization in India is the result of a long historical development. To know this development, its systematic study is essential:
Former British India and Modernization:
Central political power was not established in British colonial India, India was divided into smaller states and the mentality and loyalty of the people were narrow. There was no increase in the nation-state during this period. The society was divided into different castes and sub castes. Based on class system and ethnic heights, the social status of the person was computed. The situation of the Shudras in women and society was pathetic.
There was universal superstition and religious conservatism and racism in society and human life. There was illiteracy and ignorance everywhere. Education was not developed. Most of the people lived in Indian villages and their livelihoods were farming. Agriculture was the only major business. The Indian economy was completely based on agriculture, so economic development was also negligible.
Law and judicial system was individual law was not equal to all people, and not all were equally in the courts. Access to the public in political matters was prohibited. One person had all the power in it
Conclusion: In the former British India, there was a complete lack of central government, neither was the national state, it was dominated by religious conservatism, ignorance and social inequality. The ruling politicians were often absorbed in pleasure and luxury and had a opposite attitude towards the public's interests. The situation of the people was pathetic because there was no democratic system.
Modernization in British India:
The arrival of British India in India coincided with the establishment of East India Company. British government laid the foundation for modernization in Indian society. The whole country was successful in bringing British rule under a strong central government.
The result of the political system established by the British government was that the place of narrow local integrity was taken loyally to the whole country. The idea of Akhand and Madhya Bharat was the result of this political unification.
Western education is the beginning of British rule in India; It was due to the promotion of nationalism and independence through western education, that the young people of India who received Western education, as a result of their mind-brain struggle against exploitation in the West Studied. As a result of liberating India from British rule resulted in the formation of Indian independence struggle. The Rimbaab
Thus, the study of the works of thinkers such as Burke, Mill, Milton, Macaulay and Herbert Spencer have given birth to feelings of freedom of life, nationalism and self-rule in Indian youth. The English government established a new type of administrative and bureaucratic system in India. For the first time in India, civil and criminal code was composed. Equality and the uniformity of the law were recognized before the law, industrialization was also started in this period.
Development of the means of transport and communication with the establishment of industries. There was a new development of railway, post and telegraph. As a result, the arrival of rural people started coming towards the cities so that urbanization could be developed. In British period, propaganda of proprietary institutions was started.
The establishment of representative organizations, the practice of limited franchise and the establishment of local institutions started raising the interests of the people in the governance system and started demanding independence and democracy. Thus, in the British era, new values, institutions and scientific contemplation began in India, which resulted in the pace of political modernization.
There were also many social reformers in the British era, such as Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Vivekananda, Raja Ram Mohan Roy etc. He informed the newlyweds in the Indian public for the demand of modernization of India.
Dr. According to Zakaria, "India's neo-consciousness was primarily spiritual and it initiated many social and religious movements. The 19th century religious and social reforms proved very useful in advancing in the direction of modernization of India.
In such improvement movements, names of Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ramakrishnan Mission and Theosophical Society are taken prominently. By removing superstitions in Indian society, these reform movements taught every aspect of Indian society in the light of logic, conscience and science. These reform movements created a background and environment, on which the sense of nationalism can be developed and the goal of Indian independence can be achieved. "
Prof. AR Desai has written about reform movements: "Jihad Against Improvement in Society and Improvement in Caste System, Equal Rights for Women, Movement Against Child Marriage, Social and Legal Inequality
Religious superstitions, pagan and hypocrisy were reversed in the religious area. These movements were struggling for greater independence and freedom of social equality and their ultimate goal was nationalism. "
Modernization in independent India:
It was arranged in the Constitution that all people are equal before the law. Everyone has the right to prepare, think, express, and communicate, but it will be according to all the beliefs established by law. An independent judiciary was established to provide fair and independent justice to the provision of Panchayati Raj for increasing public participation in governance. Fair Public Service Commission was set up to recruit public services
Free and fair elections were arranged, as well as party system adopted The landlord system was set up to bring social and economic changes, the right to property was converted into legal authority. As a result of industrialization, industries were developed and encouraged participation of workers in industries.
Thus, due to the increase in the trend of industrialization and urbanization, there has been radical changes in the ideals and values of the people. Conclusion: Regarding the Indian political system, Maurice Jones states that "India's society is traditional and politics is modern, politics is modern
Although modern political institutions have been formed by the Constitution, but practically Indian society is not able to digest it completely. For example, independent elections have been organized by the Constitution, but the elements of religion and caste have influenced them very much, the constitution has been provided for adult franchisees, but a large part of women is not part of the electoral roll. "
Describing this situation, Rajni Kothari has called India the Mandal as Jane. Jenas is such a marine animal that looks both back and forth and looks at both together. Like Jane, the Indian political system looks at both the front and the rear - neither completely broke the relationship with the past nor it has become completely modern. "Rudolf thinks that" this is a mixed system in which a mixture of elements of traditionality and modernity is found. "
It is clear that at present, there are many difficulties in Indian political modernization, such as religious superstition, casteism, poverty, illiteracy, narrow fidelity, ideal and value or ethics etc. Therefore, as long as the conservative element is not present in the Indian political system, it is extremely complex and unnatural to accept the completely modern form.